In the shadow of value chains

Over the last few years value chains have become an important topic for donors and development practitioners. I say “again” because as with many other topics there is a tendency for these topics to be seasonal (read fashionable). This is great because every time it becomes fashionable new ideas are brought in, while old experiments provide valuable lessons and knowledge.

The purpose of this post is not to discuss value chain promotion. Just to make sure you understand what I am going on about, I will briefly define a value chain as the path of a product through a conversion process that starts with design (or raw materials), production, distribution and in some cases even consumption. An agricultural value chain will often start with seed, and will end up as a processed food product. On the mesopartner.com website there are several great publications and a LEDCast episodes on the topic of value chains.

In many of the areas where I am working there is a tendency by officials and development practitioners to take on the very tough commodity value chains. These value chains are typically in the traditional sectors and include end products like sugar, wood, furniture, fish, and many other agricultural products. These value chains are very

A huge pile of yellow wood and meranti, waiting to be burnt
A huge pile of yellow wood and meranti, waiting to be burnt

attractive, as they typically reach into rural areas, involve a large number of people, create many jobs, and often involve small farmers and less educated workers. But these value chains are also the oldest, which means that the actors have had a lot of time to mobilise strong interest groups, entrenched positions, and comfortable way of doing things.

When you look around these traditional value chains, you often find dozens of smaller value chains that are overlooked. Hence the title, “in the shadow of value chains”. These chains include biomass (leaves, sawdust, feathers, etc), traditional medicine and exotic plants (in the case of forestry), wood offcuts (in the case of furniture).

A mountain of sawdust
A mountain of sawdust waiting to be blown away by the wind

In these secondary value chains are typically very small, and may appear insignificant at first glance. But closer scrutiny may reveal some interesting opportunities to start new firms, or to create skills upgrading opportunities for unemployed or unskilled workers. Extreme care must be taken to not raise false hope, or to push the vulnerable into businesses that they are not able to run competitively. It does not matter whether a trust, cooperative, project or society is used, as these are simply means to an end.

During the analysis these secondary value chains make an extra effort to see why entrepreneurs have not already pursued this idea or opportunity. Also try to determine what the minimum scale is that is required to pursue the opportunity commercially. The economies of scale typically pose a huge barrier to entry in rural or marginalised areas.

I believe that there are huge opportunities in the emerging sector of climate technology and environmental management. I recently saw a biomass to gas converter that can be installed in a community for only a few thousand US dollars. The converter is fed with biodegradable mass and then provides the community with gas for heating, lighting and cooking (another example here). There are many new technologies now entering the marketplace that can give rural areas a complete head start, with biodiesel being a obvious example. It would be great if we can find ways to link cleaner technology and climate technology with new innovative and competitive business processes within the context of value chain promotion!

Firstly, do you have any experience in working with these secondary value chains? Which products, technologies or end markets have you worked with?

Secondly, do you have pictures of obvious resources or business opportunities that are not exploited? I would like to build up a library of pictures of these products, so please post them to this blog so that we can get a movement going on these value chains.

Thirdly, have you investigated CDM and other climate technologies that have the potential to not only save the environment, but to improve the competitiveness of sectors and value chains?

If you are interested to read up a bit more on the green news in South Africa, then head over to Urban Sprout. They have a great website and lots of resources and links to keep you busy. If you are keen to get involved in investigating some of the value chains that are often overlooked, and that may offer interesting opportunities for exploiting by-products chains then share your ideas here!

Some other great weblogs

Some of the other great blogs that I follow are:

Dani Rodrik’s blog – http://rodrik.typepad.com/dani_rodriks_weblog/

Chris Blatmans blog – http://chrisblattman.blogspot.com/

The Private Sector Development Blog of the World Bank – http://psdblog.worldbank.org/psdblog/

The Bottom Billion blogpage of Paul Collier – http://bottombillion.com/

Let me know if you read other blogs that I should also list on this site.

The difference between facilitation and facipulation

Zini is sitting down while making an input
Zini is sitting down while making an input

Whenever a facilitator stands in front of a group of people sitting in a workshop, it is important to realise that the standing position is a powerful and dominating position. While the purpose of a facilitator is to enable a discussion to take place, and certainly to challenge or stimulate thinking; facilitators often use their platform to share their ideas, thus influencing the group. I refer to this habit as ‘facipulation‘, which is a combination of facilitation and manupulation. Inputs made by the facilitator during a workshop could be extremely influential and manupalitive. While in some cases people will not mind being facipulated, in other cases people resent being told by an outsider what to do or how to think.

If it is necessary as a facilitator to make an input during a facilitated session, the facilitator should first ask for permission to switch roles. If the group permits, then the facilitator should take a seat (or take a less dominating position) and share their idea. This is done whilst complying with the rules that the group agreed to at the beginning of the facilitated session. Again, I emphasize, the facilitator must make the input as a normal group member. No special favors or rights for the facilitator like extra long time, or by critising other ideas. I prefer that the facilitator should sit down, as this breaks her power over the group. In fact, I take it so far that I ask a group member to faciliate or make notes on the flipchart in cases where I do not have a co-facilitator supporting me.

Remember, a good facilitator is like a mid-wife of the facilitated discussion concentrating on the process of discussion, while the RESULTS and the CREDIT belongs to the group

Hello world

The intention of this weblog is to raise awareness of issues that do not receive enough attention in the field of territorial development. Furthermore, I am hoping to get a discussion going with other people that are also passionate about economic development through growth and increased competitition.

I spend a lot of my time facilitation discussion, creative thinking and exploration in workshops. Now let us see if it is possible to do the same in the online world of blogs.

I work in the field of economic development, which means I work with people, ideas and problems (see my pages for an overview). My job is to facilitate a process whereby people can think about their situation differently. In most cases, this means that I force people to sit in a workshop and think about their situation creatively. In everyday worklife, thinking out of the box often doesn’t get much time. While people within organisations often get to think things thru because they are confronted by shareholders, collegues or bosses, thinking between organisations often doesn’t take place at all.

I work with private sector and public sector to promote the competitiveness of sectors and of places.

By the way, I also co-host a podcast series with Dr. Jorg Meyer-Stamer on local economic development called the LEDCAST.  Some of the most recent shows are accessible on the right hand menu.

I invite you to share your ideas, comments, opinions and pictures on this site!